Behind the Urals, Western Siberia plain
The plains of Western Siberia (the western Siberia basin) is located to the West of the chain of the Urals and East of the Yenisei River, it is one third of Siberia (North – South: 2400km;) Est-Ouest: 1900 km).
It is mostly accepted that the plain of Western Siberia was part of the Siberian craton which, itself, was derived from the supercontinent Rodinia. He was detached from the North of the Laurentia in 780-750 my. The detachment of the Rodinia is located in the West of the plain of the Western Siberia.
The plain of Siberia is a region having suffered a slump extended during the last glacial period dating at the end of the Pleistocene (110 000 10 000ans years). This glaciation is named for Siberia Zyriankien glaciation. During this ice age a logjam occurred the access of the Arctic ocean. It's a pile of ice in a watercourse which can form dams and cause flooding during breakup (flood). So the Ob and Yenisei rivers are seen blocking access to the Arctic ocean. This caused a flood in the plain of Siberia and so a strong deposit of alluvium. The rivers have has an inversely currents, water flowed to the Sea Caspian and the Aral Sea.
This area is a great resource in oil, natural gas and mineral resources. She was one of the most important productions of Russia between 1970 and 1980. Indeed, the formation of a sea in deep water at the end of the Jurassic – early Cretaceous (140-150 my) led to such wealth. The sea covered more than one million km² in the central basin region, composed of siliceous organic material deposited at the bottom of the sea. The sedimentary rocks from Organics, generated more than 80% of the reserves in oil from the plains of Western Siberia.
Dans cette zone on peut observer de nombreux dyke volcanique dans la réserve de Stolby, pour plus d'information, c'est ici.
It is composed mostly of Cenozoic alluvial deposits (65.5 – 0 my). It includes a few of the largest swamps and floodplains of the world. In this environment different types of vegetation such as the tundra, forests, as well as the taigas, etc… The tundra is a plant stratum mainly composed of grasses, lichens, mosses and different varieties of shrubs. The taiga, on the other hand, consists mainly of coniferous (pine, spruce, and larch) forest.
Frozen ground (pergisol), glaciers, Lakes funds, retain a strong amount of greenhouse gases. They hold large amount of methane, a gas having an effect 20 times greater than carbon dioxide. Alas, via global warming this gas begins to escape. So more than 50 billion tons could be freed from the Siberian Lakes. It is ten times more than the amount of methane that is currently in the atmosphere. We immediately feel this increase in temperature in the world.
Central Siberian plateau
East of the river Yenisei up to the Lena river is the central Siberian plateau. Occupying more than one third of Siberia (3.5 million km²), its highest point is the Poutorana at 1701 m. From West to East the area password the mountainous plateau and then the plain. Many minerals are present such as coal, iron, gold, diamonds and natural gas. I've been in train, but I wanted to add it because this plateau is located north of Lake Baikal.
"Siberia: the melting of the ice, containing methane, worried"
"The Altaids of Central Asia: A tectonic evolutionary and innovative review." WHILEM C., WINDLEY B., SCOTT G., 2012
"Neoproterozoic accretionary and collisional events on the western margin of the Siberian Craton: new geological and geochronological evidence from the Yenisey Ridge." Vernikovsky V., Vernikovskaya A.E., Kotov A.B., Sal' mogilnikova E.B., Kovach V.P.