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Mount Pisa

Lorsque le soleil disparait à l’horizon à l’Ouest, nous arrivons au crépuscule. Il n’y a plus qu’une “fine” couche d’atmosphère qui se dresse entre le mout Pisa et les rayons du soleil formant le couché de soleil.

Contenu Scientifique

Les couleurs ont une longueur d’onde spécifique à chacune. Le rouge a la longueur d’onde la plus élevée et le violet la plus petite.

longueur d'onde couleur
Les longueurs d’ondes des différentes couleurs.

La couleur du ciel au couché du soleil est de la même origine que la couleur bleu du ciel durant la journée, on appelle cela la “diffusion de Rayleigh”.

Lorsque la lumière du soleil pénètre dans l’atmosphère terrestre, elle est affectée par les molécules oxygène et azote. Les photons de la lumière frappent ces molécules et rebondissent sur elles. Ils se dispersent ensuite dans différentes directions selon  leur couleur, soit leur longueur d’onde (de la même manière que les gouttelettes d’eau, en arc-en-ciel, diffracte la lumière en différente couleur). Dans cet éventail de couleurs, la lumière bleue a la longueur d’onde la plus courte et est plus sujette à la diffusion dans l’atmosphère, donnant au ciel sa couleur bleu. Les autres couleurs voyagent jusqu’à la surface de la Terre.

Diffusion de la couleur bleu à cause de sa faible longueur d’onde dans l’atmosphère rendant le ciel bleu. Les autres couleurs atteignent la surface de la Terre.

Au crépuscule, les rayons du soleil traverse une couche plus épaisse de l’atmosphère, environs 10 fois plus grand que lors du zénith. L‘effet de diffusion augmente car la lumière doit parcourir une plus grande distance à travers l’atmosphère. Le bleu est encore plus dispersé. Puis le vert et le jaune sont affectés jusqu’à ce que finalement, la seule lumière que nous puissions voir directement du soleil est le rouge orange.

 

couché de soleil
Lors du couché du soleil, les rayons traversent une couche atmosphérique plus importante, donnant la couleur rouge orange.

Réfraction

Un autre effet intéressant de l’épaisseur de l’atmosphère est la réfraction. L’atmosphère agit comme une lentille, réfractant la lumière  du soleil, de sorte que l’image du soleil persiste à l’horizon quelques instants après qu’il ait été réellement disparu.

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